#PandemicHorseRescue: Thoughtfulness Under Pressure

Last week, Demi had a HUGE breakthrough. If you’ve been following along on Facebook, you might remember that Demi was very whip shy. I spent a couple weeks petting her with assorted whips and whip-like things, while offering treats, praise, or skritches (depending on her mood). Chris put in a lot of handling with her during the week, and it showed in Demi’s willingness to approach and investigate even when I was carrying strange items. And then, The Big Thing.

What have I been so excited about? She stepped up to the mounting block when I asked.

Doesn’t sound huge, does it? Its one of the first things I teach a horse, whether they’re a yearling or seasoned and just new-to-me. It was one of the first things I asked Demi when we started working together, and it will be absolutely critical to getting her going under saddle. For Demi, and really for many horses with questionable human histories, this one little movement is very, very stressful.

Along with being whip shy, Demi gives the mounting block a serious hairy eyeball. I general, Demi is quite relaxed and even brave. But things change when Humans Lift Things. Plastic bag on the ground, whipped around by the wind? Yawn. Rattly feed bag on the ground? Maybe it still has food! Person sitting on mounting block? They’ll scratch my ears for me!

Plastic bag in human hands? SNORT. Feed bag in human hands? I’m going to be eaten! Mounting block in human hands? *&*^%! So, along with our “whips can just be long arms” lessons, we’ve been working on standing near human moving mounting block. She definitely know which side is the “mounting side.” If it was in front, behind, or on the right side, she’d just tense. On the left, she’d try to quietly sidle away– and if that didn’t work, panic ensued. We’ve gotten past that, and even to where I could lean on her (itchy horses really are the best), but she’d always keep her hip a little away, guarding herself.

This is, of course, a very common reaction. I teach the last step up to the mounting block by tap-tap-tapping a dressage whip on the right hip, asking the horse to step “over.” At this point, they (including Demi) understand this on the ground, but the idea of moving away from pressure but towards the person can be confusing at first. Now imagine Demi– recently afraid of whips and of mounting blocks, just starting to be ok with these things, being asked for this step!

I started her on this maneuver up against the fence, rather than the mounting block. It limits the number of directions she can move in (I always leave an “out,” but it’s best if I can predict which direction that is!), and didn’t have the associations of the mounting block. I asked for this about twice a week since the second week Demi was with us, each time asking for just a tiny bit more. The first time, we just hung out, her head in my lap and her body no where near the fence. The first bit of adjustment can be done with the halter and line, which she’s very soft about and much less afraid of. The last few steps we’ve been stuck on. I’ve been accepting “step under, don’t fully panic” as a great response.

But then she did it. She started to get upset. Then she relaxed again. She thought. I asked again- soft, but insistent. And over she stepped. And then did it again at the mounting block. And the next day she stepped up with just a word and a lift of my empty hand. Over the course of the week, she’s had an English saddle on again (yawn) and a western saddle (this got the hairy eyeball), and even did some serious mounting work. I’ve swung a leg over, though not yet sat on her. And in all her work since, that moment of thoughtfullness under pressure has been there.

Want to help Demi, or other horses in need? Here are a few ways:

Get a Pandemic Horse Rescue shirt through Bonfire. Youth sizes and tank tops available.

Order a multi-species mystery box of goodies for your own horse or other pets.

Donate to, or adopt from, Riverside County Department of Animal Services, or your own local shelter!

#PandemicHorseRescue: The First Seven Days

Demi was at the Riverside Shelter for fifteen days. This had two HUGE benefits for us. First, it acted as a quarantine. No, not for Covid-19 (there are no known equine cases), but for equine influenza, rhinopneumonitis, streptococcus equi (“strangles”), and other equine illnesses. Most will show symptoms within 10 days. We kept her apart from the other horses when she first arrived out of an abundance of caution, but didn’t need to be particularly worried. The second benefit was just important: the first week is critical in care and feeding for a malnourished horse.

When we picked Demi up, she was underweight but not likely to have immediate metabolic issues. She still had some muscle, and even the tiniest hint of a fat pad behind her elbow (for you non-horse folks, this spot is a major marker for equine body condition; it is the first place the gain fat, and the last place they lose it). The latter was likely due to the care she received at the shelter. We don’t know what condition she was in when she was brought in, but she would have been borderline at risk for refeeding syndrome. The shelter held her through this critical period, with the availability of their vet on call should something happen. By the time we got her home, we could have her on all-she-could-eat hay without concern. Aside from the peace of mind, this was excellent due to the potential labor shortages of quarantine. Any other time, I’d happily spend all day every day at the barn!

Kahoots gave us an EPIC deal on their EX feed. It is a hay based extruded pellet, nutritionally somewhere between Stable Mix and Strategy; pretty ideal for refeeding! Demi’s teeth do seem to bother her a bit, so the extruded form (puffed, similar to dog food) is good for her. I have a speculum and float coming so I can take a preliminary look at her dentition. I have been able to get a slightly better look than at the shelter, and place her at 6-8 years old. She has a good bit of wear on her tearing teeth (the middle incisors) that indicates she has eaten a lot of brush. I’d like to have the dentist out, but so far she’s eating well so we’ll try to hold off as long as possible. Our local animal care staff– vets, dentists, farriers, and the like– are stretched thin and at high risk. I had planned to do the same with her feet, but our farrier will be out to the barn on another appointment before my new nippers come in. So she gets to see the professional! Her feet are quite long and in need of care, but they do look like they’ve been done in recent memory, maybe around the beginning of the year. At some point, she was cared for.

She’s been on a feed through powerpac, and next month she’ll get ivermectin & praziquantel. This will take care of any parasites she’s picked up. Saturday farrier, Monday start vaccines. I plan to have her trotting up hills and walking down them a few times a week as soon as the rain lets up, and in a week or two add some sustained (5-10 minute) trots in the roundpen. Thus far she’s been very anxious about leaving the barn yard, so we’ll take that a little slow while she gets to know us. Leo had similar anxieties, and lots of increasingly long walks and eventually long lining did wonders for him. I’m hoping to follow the same plan with Demi.

Demi wanders off with saddle

Now that we’ve had a chance to evaluate her, I’m fairly sure she was broke to ride at some point. But I think she also had some sort of unpleasant experience. The first day I got her out, she was sweet as could be until the mounting block came out. Then I got the hairy eyeball. We practiced standing by the mounting block and being loved. A few days later I put a saddle on her.  Lifting the saddle got the side-eye, but I went slow and let her wander off midway. She decided I was ok, and didn’t blink at being girthed. She’s concerned with what people-with-tack are going to do, not about the tack itself. It seems likely that she has also had some good experiences, as she is very calm and engaged with a little reassurance of fair treatment.

Right now the plan is to get her physically rehabbed, then address her training, and then find her a person and a permanent home. If we’re lucky, it all goes well enough that we can do this again.

Pandemic Horse Rescue

On April 1st, I went to the Riverside Animal Shelter to look at a horse.

“Demi” arrives at Moon Dance Ranch


No, this is not an April Fool’s. Meet Pandemic, aka Demi.

The barn owner, one of the other trainers, and I had been keeping an eye on the shelter since early March. By April, the shelter closure was imminent, and despite adopting out over a thousand animals, the shelter was still not cleared (today, a week later, all the adoptable animals have homes!). The animals left were mostly those at the most risk. The livestock– like Demi– and the dogs and cats deemed “unadoptable” due to age, medical problems, or behavior. Demi’s listing looked promising. While she had not yet been evaluated– so all her ad said was “female chestnut horse, age unknown”– we decided it was worth checking if we could help her out.

Demi’s ad


Spoilers: as it turned out, we could, and we are!

At the shelter, we were taken into the back to look at her. No one was available to go into her pen, and we couldn’t. She looked sound, if underweight. Her color was striking, with a blue eye, flaxen mane, and plenty of chrome. If we could get her healthy, we could probably get her a home. Her tail was all knotted up, and I could see a bit of wire sticking out. She’d been picked up as a stray, so the shelter knew next to nothing about her. They were happy to waive the adoption fee, since she hadn’t had her vaccines done yet and livestock is difficult to adopt out in the best of times. We needed one critical piece of information before we took her home to rehab: how old was she?

She wasn’t wearing a halter, and we couldn’t go in with her. She was personable, and kept walking up to the fence to check us out and say hello, but wasn’t really interested in us looking in her mouth. I can’t blame her. Who wants a bunch of strangers prying their mouth open? But we needed to get at least a rough estimate. If she was underweight because she’s been living off of desert brush, we could rehab her. If she was underweight because she was geriatric, there wouldn’t be much we could do. Rachael, the other trainer along, held a bit of hay just out of reach. As Demi reached for it, lip smacking, I caught a glimpse of her incisors: “Normal adult teeth.” We took a chance, and brought her home. While the shelter did waive the adoption fee, I made a donation to cover the hay she’d been eating.
The Pandemic Horse Rescue was formed. Chris Rausten, owner of the fabulous Moon Dance Ranch; Rachael Hamby, young horse specialist; and myself. Between us, we know there will always be someone available to check in on Demi, even as we all navigate quarantine. As she progresses, we each have different strengths and different skills we can teach her.

For now, Demi’s main job is eating, and she’s a champ at it.

Gaits at a Glance

I had an absolute blast spending a couple of days with a former student who now runs Summer Rose Horsemanship in Hagerstown, MD. Along with getting to ride her Heck horse– who was quite a skittish fellow when I met him, but is now a cuddlebug and quite flashy– we did some work with a couple of gaited horses on the farm, helping their riders ask for better and more consistent gaits.

Usually, when folks ask where they can learn more about the different possible gaits and their mechanics, I point them at GaitedHorses.net It hasn’t changed a whole lot since I started digging around it (almost two decades ago…yikes!), but it’s still a great resource. There are good articles, clear diagrams, and lots and lots of links out to further resources. Unfortunately, it can be a bit overwhelming. So I felt inspired to write out brief definitions for the different gaits, and how I usually talk about and work with them. I hope you find it helpful.

The Pace

The pace is a two beat lateral gait, meaning the legs move in pairs, one side at a time. Just like the trot (and jog), there are many types of pace– or any gait! I group the pace gaits as follows:

Flying Pace
This is the racing gait. I take the term ‘flying’ pace from the Icelandic flugskeið; I’ve always found the term quite descriptive! The flying pace has speed, power, and a lot of air time. It is an extended gait, and requires the horse to be fairly strong in the pace. It will often throw the rider from side to side. Long suspension (the period when all four feet are off the ground) means the hooves hit the ground fairly hard, requiring a lot of flexion in the joint to absorbs the shock and push off again. To stay sound, the horse needs to be physically conditioned as well as capable. Imagine you are conditions a race horse (you are, it is a lot of aerobics), and a park horse or upper level dressage horse at the same time. This is not something to be rushed, or overdo. For the few horses I’ve worked at the flying pace, I try to minimize the lateral thrust. This is for my comfort, and to encourage them to land with their hoof flat; many pacers will land on the outside edge of their hoof, putting additional strain on the leg.

Hard Pace
This is also descriptive. The hard pace is a rather jolting gait. It does still have some suspension, but much less than the flying pace. The two lateral pairs of legs move slightly closer together– a “One-–Two” to the flying pace’s “One….Two.” The hind leg of one pair will not track up (where the hind foot lands near where the forefoot leaves the ground), but land somewhere in the middle distance. At the top end of the hard pace, you can post to it. I largely avoid this gait, unless training up for the flying pace.

Soft Pace
I’ve never heard this term elsewhere, but again it’s pretty descriptive! Gaited horse folks usually know what I mean right away, and I wouldn’t be surprised if others have come up with the same term, or something similar. This is the pace– that two beat lateral gait– with little or no suspension. This is the pace equivalent of the jog. For horses that are fully lateral (like the lovely big black Tennessee Walker Raven I worked with this week, or Commander, a Walker I worked with in New York), this might be one of their working gaits. For those with the full spectrum of gaits (like Promise, the Spotted Saddle Horse in the cover image), I tend to use this only as a stepping stone. A good soft pace should be, in essence, a collected gait. It shouldn’t just be slow, it should be balanced, with adequate flexion in the limbs (much less than the trot, but much more than the flying pace), and ideally a bit of a shift in the hip, engaging the core and stepping more under than out with the hind leg.

This is often hard, as all lateral gaits are “ventroflexed,” meaning the spine tends to go down (and therefore the head up). However, this shouldn’t be an excuse for us or our horses to slouch along! That way lies soreness for all. I often take advantage of the fact that this gait can be physically taxing to the horse. I ask for the best possible soft pace, with a bit of contact and minimal wobble, asking the horse to stay so very very straight, slow but energetic. And then I encourage them to break to the stepped pace, which they usually do quite eagerly. I will also do this with multi gaited horses that have a strong trot, but are weak in the pace and running walk. It’s often easier to build a little bit of muscle and co-ordination in the pacing gaits of these multi-gaited horses before moving to the running walk or rack.

Stepped Pace

The stepped, stepping, or broken pace is a four beat lateral gait. The two legs on the same side move closer to each other than to their opposites. Some folks use “stepped,” “stepping,” and “broken” to mean slightly different timings in this gait, but others use them interchangeably. As with all equestrian language (ahem, sorrel), there are regional, discipline, and breed dialects. In Saddlebreds, this is the “slow gait.” I tend to just use stepped pace, for simplicities sake, and then describe the gait as “more” or “less” broken. I prefer a firm separation of the pairs, with each hoof landing independently (rather than the front starting to land as the hind finishes landing). There should be less lateral wobble in this gait than in the pace, but not yet the big head nodding V of the running walk. This is actually my favorite gait! I have a short hip, which tends to cramp in a good running walk (not to mention the ab workout of the running walk! …. I should get a walking horse). While all pacing gaits can be hard to collect, the stepped pace is often hard to extend; horses tend to break to the rack.

The Middle Gaits

Rack
This might be a tad controversial. Rack tends to get its own category. I’m going to group it here with the running walk not because they are the same gait, but because they tend to be found together. It’s possible this is genetic. It’s also possible it’s just breeders’ influence. In any case, both gaits are fairly in the middle of the lateral-diagnol spectrum, and I haven’t (yet) met a horse with a solid running walk that couldn’t also rack. The divisions we give between walking gaits and racking gaits also varies drastically by breed culture!

The rack has been described as even on landing, lateral pickup. What this means is that the landing of the hooves is an even 1-2-3-4, like the running walk, but the lateral pairs come off the ground closer together. This doesn’t precisely fit everything I’ve called a rack (anything four beat can be slippery anyway!), but it’s a good way of thinking about it. The rack tends to have a shorter, faster leg sequence than the running walk, making it just a little easier on those human ab muscles. I tend to break the rack into saddle rack (a paso fino or corto, or slow tölt) and speed rack (or fast tölt).

Running Walk
Everyone says they want a horse with a running walk. It’s the easiest gait, it’s so smooth, you don’t even need to learn to ride it. And then they get on a horse with a serious, big striding, ear flopping, running walk. It can be absolutely exhilarating! But it is also work. If you’re tall, with a long hip (so not me), it is merely exercise. Imagine one of those as-seen-on-TV machines that will do you ab workout for you. You’re…still doing crunches. The running walk needs a big upward swing to the rider’s hip, like sitting an extended trot. One of the reasons you often see riders in the rack or running walk leaning back is training; the other reason is that it opens the hip angle, allowing you to follow that big motion just a little bit easier. While the running walk has a lot of motion, it has minimal concussion; in this, it can be much easier on the rider than any other gait. One way to differentiate between a running walk and a rack is the number of hooves on the ground.

Many horses also have a gait somewhere between a flat walk (a big extended snappy walk that most horses, gaited or not, can develop) and a true running walk. I don’t have a word for it. Technically, it is still a running walk– four beat even, same footfall pattern as the walk. But I find it to be at least as different as trot and jog; the stride is a bit shorter, the footfalls are closer together, the back has less motion as the horse doesn’t need to stretch to their utmost. It is not, however, collected.

Foxtrot

Fun fact: the original American Horse Show Association rules for stock horses included the foxtrot, and the National Quarter Horse Breeders’ Association preferred it!

The foxtrot is a four beat diagonal gait– effectively a broken trot. It s also the only gait that lands a front hoof first. Like the stepped pace, it can lean more or less diagonal. Again, I prefer nicely separated hoofbeats.

Trot

I think y’all have got this one, right?

I’m going to add one note here, and that is the idea of collection within extension. Collection is not about speed, but rather about carriage. Good extended tot (or any gait) will have some elements of collected carriage: the core and back are engaged (regardless of the type of flexion governed by the gait), the hip muscles are in use (in trotting gaits this is often clear, as the hip will visibly rotate under the horse), and the horse lands in such a way that it can easily leave the ground again, in any direction. Look at the difference between a racing trot (especially in harness) and a dressage style extended trot.

I need more gaited horses to work with!

#JourneyToTheStart: The Yearling Year

I’ve been working with a pair of yearlings at Moon Dance Ranch. It’s been a lot of fun, and it’s also been an opportunity for me to think through, consider, and now articulate my training choices for getting horses ready to start under saddle. A lot of folks view ground work as something they need to do. For me, its often the best part! I’m very lucky that these yearlings’ people are thoughtful about their horse care, and are in no particular rush. This works out well for me, as I sometimes need to take time away for my research, and for the yearlings, who have a great team behind them.

Flynn (chestnut) and Willow (grulla) July 7, 2019

Stay tuned for biographies (and foal pics) of this dynamic duo!

Bit-less, not Pressure-less

This post was originally from December 26, 2016 on my old blog.

   I’ve mentioned before that some bit-less bridles, particularly the Dr. Cook’s and bridles based on it, can actually apply a huge amount of psychological and physical pressure to the horse. Those I’ve ridden with know that I am generally a fan of riding bit-less, but do not like rigs that directly apply unfettered poll pressure. I certainly do not agree that such rigs are kinder to most horses than a simple snaffle (or even, in some cases, a basic curb).
  

Dr. Cook's Bridle with poll studs
Figures from Patent for “Bitless bridle for governing horses and other animals”

   Today, while looking up something entirely different, I stumbled on the original patent for Dr. Cook’s bridle, which contained this terrifying addendum: “The centerpiece may include a plurality of holes for receiving studs for applying painless pressure on regions of special acuity at the poll and behind each ear of the animal, or may receive a separate sleeve which includes the studs in order to apply pressure over areas of special acuity. Studs of different sizes can be fitted in a range of locations, depending upon the amount of pressure required and the conformation of any particular horse or other animal.”

 

     Thankfully, I have never seen poll studs in use at any of my barns, nor even seen them for sale.

Four-beat Follow-up, Part II: Non-standard canters & gallops

This in an update on a prior series from Oct. ’16 on four beat gaits.

greyhound
This “second suspension” is usually missing from a horse’s gallop

    First, let’s talk about an anomalous form of the gallop whose existence is still, with todays slow motion video technology, debated. That is the double suspension gallop. In this, there are two moments of suspension, similar to a running greyhound. The hoof-falls would be hind, hind, suspension, opposite fore, fore, secretariatsuspension.  Secretariats immense stride is sometimes credited to his use of this gait. His winning photo from the Belmont Stakes shows him in a strange position, with all feet off the ground but legs outstretched. His outside fore hangs slightly, much like the dog in the photo above. It looks so strange that I, like many, wondered if it was a glitch. Then I realized that foreleg, and the opposite hind, could still be in the process of moving forward. He is on the left lead, with his left (inside) fore about to land. So I looked around to see if this glitch was repeated anywhere.

     I looked at some “most obvious suspects.” California Chrome. American Pharoah. Cigar. Zenyatta. All had huge closing strides– and acceleration within the gallop is where the double suspension seems to show– and none of them seem to exhibit this gait. And RedCadeauxthen I stumbled across this photo finish from the 2011 Melbourne Cup.  Red Cadeaux, the chestnut on the inside, is in almost the exact strange position that Secretariat was in at his Belmont finish. The photo IS distorted– the larger version shows one horse with a ridiculously large hock– but the distortion seems greatest the furthest from the finish line. And there are now a handful of interesting non-finish line photos floating around, like mrpremierthis Quarter Horse Mr Premier LVThis photo could be the moment after the phase shown above. The left fore has just touched the ground, but both hinds are already well in the air. The double suspension gallop’s effects on speed and soundness, as well as it’s possible heritability, are all conjecture at this point, as is its very existence. Finding evidence of horses galloping with out fulling weighting the diagonal at the same time is easy. Evidence of a second true suspension is inconclusive. Studies are ongoing.

     Now, back to the greyhound. The greyhound tends to employ a rotary gallop, with the hind-fore pair being lateral (usually the outside pair). The second non-standard hoofbeat pattern is what is often called the “gaited canter,” which is a rotary canter. The hoofbeats are hind, lateral pair, fore, which the pair occasionally exhibiting a slight break. It is often seen as just another crosscanter (i.e., disunited, with the fore and hind legs on opposite leads), but the tendency of gaited horses– especially those who exhibit lateral gaits– is strong, and the pairing of the lateral in the canter is not generally seen in other crosscanters. It is not a gait I would encourage, but for these horses it appears to be “natural.” I find that strengthening these horses diagonal gaits, if any, a great deal of working on circles, and is possible introducing haunches-in, helps to develop a standard canter, which is both more comfortable and better for long term soundness.

 

Read the rest of the series: